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Zaslal: Pi október 20, 2017 12:17 pm Predmet: The Theory of Everything The Quest to Explain All Reality [H
The Theory of Everything: The Quest to Explain All Reality
MP4 | Video: AVC 1280x720 | Audio: AAC 48KHz 2ch | Duration: 12 Hours | 10.9 GB
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Genre: eLearning | Language: English
The great theories of physics are like great works of art. And much like the greatest works of art, you don't need to completely understand them in order to appreciate them. The unifying theories of physics are among the greatest and most complex in all of science; they stand as incomparable masterpieces in the gallery of modern thought. As you experience them, you will witness their progression toward ever-grander insights, pointing towards an as-yet-unfinished ultimate synthesis that will transform our understanding of the universe. Anyone, no matter what their training in science and mathematics, can appreciate this quest, which is nothing less than a search for the theory of everything.
The theory of everything will ultimately be single equation that explains all physical reality. The definitive formulation of this holy grail of physics still eludes researchers, but it is a dream with a long history, spawning such revolutionary ideas as:
Newton's law of universal gravitation: In the 17th century, Isaac Newton launched a scientific revolution by showing that the force that makes objects fall is also the force that keeps the Moon and planets in their orbits-what we now call gravity.
A unified theory of electromagnetism: In the 19th century, James Clerk Maxwell worked out equations that link two seemingly distinct phenomena-electricity and magnetism-and also predict the existence of electromagnetic waves.
Einstein's general theory of relativity: Starting with the premise that inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent, Albert Einstein made the astonishing discovery that gravity is the bending of space and time caused by mass and energy.
The standard model of elementary particles and forces: In the early 20th century, scientists investigated perplexing phenomena, including radiation and the spectrum of light emitted by atoms. Their investigations uncovered new forces and lead to a series of theories that explain the quantum realm.
Other cutting-edge concepts: The continuing search for the theory of everything has also produced superstring theory, suspersymmetry, cosmic inflation, loop quantum gravity, dark matter, dark energy, the Higgs field, multiple universes, and more.
The Theory of Everything: The Quest to Explain All Reality opens your eyes to this astounding project in 24 half-hour lectures that are suitable for inquisitive minds at all levels. Your guide, Don Lincoln, Senior Scientist at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Guest Professor of High Energy Physics at the University of Notre Dame, relishes conveying the thrill of physics to a variety of audiences, so no background beyond basic high-school mathematics is needed to follow this exciting odyssey.
Supported by scores of helpful diagrams, charts, and animations, as well as years of experience as a science writer and educator for the general public via books, blogs and YouTube, Dr. Lincoln makes the most abstract ideas in physics accessible, explaining the interactions behind everything that happens in the cosmos in terms of matter particles, their different characteristics, and the force-carrying particles that are exchanged between them.
A Thrilling First-Hand Report
It only makes sense to start The Theory of Everything by looking at what such a theory entails. After briefly reviewing the standard model of particle physics and general relativity-which are our two best prototypes for a theory of everything, though both fall short-you spend the next few lectures tracing how we got to this point. Along the way, you bridge the classical and modern eras of physics, working your way from moving electric charges, fluctuating magnetic fields, and classical electromagnetism, to the exotic concepts of quantum electrodynamics, the electroweak force, strong force "color" and quantum chromodynamics, neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles.
Then you take a parallel journey through gravity, from Newton's universal theory of gravitation uniting classical mechanics and celestial motion; to Einstein's general relativity uniting gravity, time, and space; and then to the even more exotic concepts of dark matter, dark energy, quantum gravity, extra dimensions, and the multiverse.
In each case, new theories spawned new experiments, which led to new observations-often of particles that needed to be accounted for by entirely new theories.
For more than three decades, Dr. Lincoln has been at the forefront of this quest as a physicist designing and evaluating experiments using high-energy particle accelerators. He was on the teams that made two breakthrough discoveries: the top quark in 1995 and the Higgs boson in 2012. His hands-on experience and down-to-earth gift for clear explanations and insightful analogies make this course a thrilling first-hand report from the frontlines of one of the most significant scientific efforts of our time.
A Breathtaking Trip
Among his other talents, Dr. Lincoln is skilled at conveying the beauty of mathematics to novices. While some may believe the theories of physics can't be appreciated without understanding the mathematics, Dr. Lincoln gives you a solid grounding in what the equations say, conducting you through the Greek letters and strange symbols, explaining what they mean and how these formulas make remarkable statements about the nature of the physical world.
As he says in one lecture, "We'll walk right up to the precipice of a full-blown calculation, but then we'll step back before we get mired in the mathematical details." It's a breathtaking trip, addressing such topics as:
Is the universe mathematical? Physicist Eugene Wigner wrote a famous paper puzzling over what he called the "unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics." Dr. Lincoln provides an insider's perspective on how physicists use math to unlock experimental results and why he considers it so amazingly successful at predicting nature.
Feynman diagrams: A particle physics tool that anyone can understand is the Feynman diagram, a form of doodle invented by physicist Richard Feynman. Dr. Lincoln demonstrates that these deceptively simple drawings of particle interactions are actually equations in disguise, and he describes how they revolutionized his field.
Symmetry everywhere: In 1915, mathematician Emmy Noether proved that conservation laws in physics are connected to the symmetry properties of nature. Dr. Lincoln shows how extensive symmetry is, stressing its importance to unified theories and highlighting a proposed theory of everything called supersymmetry.
Limitations of general relativity: Spectacularly successful at the planetary and cosmic scales- and even describing the warped space around black holes-the equations of general relativity break down at the quantum level. Dr. Lincoln gives a simple mathematical reason for why this is the case, illustrating the daunting challenge faced by physicists trying to devise a theory of everything.
In his last lecture, Dr. Lincoln synthesizes our current understanding by presenting a single equation that covers everything that is known to be true in fundamental physics, including special relativity, quantum mechanics, the standard model, and general relativity. By the end of the course, you'll have touched on nearly all the major theories of physics, and will have a thorough understanding of our most current knowledge about reality.
"There are so many clues staring at us in the face," Dr. Lincoln says of the many possible paths forward. "They are telling us something profound. Somebody will one day have the crucial idea." To experience this course, is to understand first-hand the thrilling unifications of reality physicists have already achieved, the promise of a Theory of Everything, and clues about what wonders lie just beyond the horizon.
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